The file SugarBackbones.pdf shows how the C-atom to C-atom joins
provide the defining conformations of the monosaccharides. The
asymmetric triplet which is the backbone of glyceraldehyde is extended
by the addition of a C-atom to either termini to produce the tetrose
backbones, the quadruplets are extended to produce the pentose
backbones, and these are extended to produce the hexose backbones.
Glucose and fructose are cleavable into two separate triplets. The
triplets of glucose are identical asymmetrical triplets; fructose is
cleavable into one symmetirical triplet and one asymmetrical triplet.
Each triplet produces four quadruplets, the four quadruplets produce
four pairs of duplicate quintuplets or four distinct quintuplets. Two
of the quintuplets produce the sextuplet backbones of glucose and
The file can be downloaded from the "Files for sharing" page of--