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Phil Stinard pstinard at uiuc.edu
Fri Nov 17 10:54:00 EST 2000

Dear Oswaldo,

There are several genetic traits that result in vivipary in maize
(vp1, vp2, vp5, vp8, vp9, vp10, w3, ps1, and others).  These traits
segregate in a Mendelian fashion, and result in viviparous kernels
producing either green (vp1, vp8, or vp10), albino (vp2, vp5, vp9, or
w3), or pink (ps1) seedlings.  Pictures of these traits can be viewed
at the Maize Database web site (http://www.agron.missouri.edu).  In
addition, fungal infection can also give rise to vivipary.  The
viviparous kernels on an infected ear would appear near the site of
the fungal infection.  I was able to locate a reference on fungal
infection resulting in vivipary:

Calvert, O. H., M. S. Zuber, and M. G. Neuffer.  1969.  Vivipary in
Zea mays induced by Diplodia maydis.  Phytopathology 59:239-240.

There is also a photo of this phenomenon in the book Mutants of
Maize, edited by  M. G. Neuffer, E. H. Coe, and S. R. Wessler, Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1997.  Do the ears with viviparous
kernels appear to be infected by fungus?  Do the viviparous kernels
appear to segregate on the ears in a Mendelian fashion?  Are the
seedlings growing from the viviparous kernels green or white?  The
answers to these questions might help determine the cause of the


Phil Stinard
Maize Genetic Cooperation Stock Center

>We are working in acid soil, since 20 years ago in Venezuela (Guarico state,
>Bolivar state). The basical problem is related to green sprouts in the cobs
>after 30 days pollinated maize. There are several hybrid involucrated.
>Somebody knows about this problem?
>I like to hear about the molecular genetics, physiology, or envirommental
>aspects (soil-plant), fungus infection.
>thanks in advance
>Oswaldo Luque M
>oluque at cantv.net

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